This is a great infographic from Search Engine Land that demonstrates all the different touchpoints and components of SEO ranking. What I like about this image is that it communicates how the relationships and order of importance between the different working parts for prioritization and strategy alignment. Both on the page and off the page SEO ranking factors are grouped as well as violations and blocking. You can also view the full size table with more explanation of the different SEO ranking element symbols.
Search Engine Land has also created links from all the table elements to great information on best practices, how to guides and other posts for a complete SEO ranking manual. I find that this graphic is good for introducing SEO ranking concepts as well as planning and strategy development. The graphic links to the full SEO guide of tips and tutorials. This is a great starting point for anyone that wants to learn about how SEO works.